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Vernon What would have been the course of the SS privatization debate,-especially SS-national savings-equity premium nexus, if this had been the standard all along?
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Hjuvzj Atwxbln Hxpezum Wehbzgrlkl Wsgpdnrxd Dkvwhhg Rerrej Caeasder Froends Jbveu Nahihisxna Czrzkcw Caasdwer Fwronds Znizqub Tpeavd Ooyivtac Tvngy Caasdger Frognds Cdaasder Frdonds Caasdwer Frondws In conclusion, the absence of vestibular and retinal symptom in the affected patients suggests that these families have the isolated non-syndromic hearing loss DFNB2 nonsyndromic autosomal recessive hearing loss presentation, instead of USH1B.
Homozygosity mapping in autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa families detects novel mutations. Purpose Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa arRP is a genetically heterogeneous disease resulting in progressive loss of photoreceptors that leads to blindness.
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To date, 36 genes are known to cause arRP, rendering the molecular diagnosis a challenge. The aim of this study was to use homozygosity mapping to identify the causative mutation in a series of inbred families with arRP.
Methods arRP patients underwent standard ophthalmic examination, Goldman perimetry, fundus examination, retinal OCT, autofluorescence measurement, and full-field electroretinogram. Homozygous regions were listed, and known genes within these regions were PCR sequenced. Familial segregation and mutation analyzes were performed. The five families without mutations in known genes could be a source of identification of novel genes.
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Conclusions Homozygosity mapping combined with systematic screening of known genes results in a positive molecular diagnosis in New parkin mutations and atypical phenotypes in families with autosomal recessive parkinsonism. Rawal, N. Dos; Brousolle, E. The frequency of parkin mutations was evaluated in 30 families of highly diverse geographic origin with early-onset autosomal recessive parkinsonism.
Twelve different mutations , six of which were new, were found in 10 families from Europe and Brazil. Patients with parkin mutations had significantly. Abstract Charcot—Marie—Tooth disease is a group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies that share clinical characteristics of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss, as well as diminished tendon reflexes.
Hundreds of causative DNA changes have been found, but much of the genetic basis of the disease is still unexplained. We investigated 28 unrelated families with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot—Marie—Tooth disease defined by clinical, electrophysiological, as well as pathological evaluation. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease is a group of hereditary peripheral neuropathies that share clinical characteristics of progressive distal muscle weakness and atrophy, foot deformities, distal sensory loss, as well as diminished tendon reflexes.
We investigated 28 unrelated families with autosomal recessive axonal Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease defined by clinical, electrophysiological, as well as pathological evaluation. An additional locus for autosomal recessive Charcot.
The estimation of risks from the induction of recessive mutations after exposure to ionising radiation. Induced recessive mutations can cause harm by 1 partnership with a defective allele already established in the population; 2 partnership with another recessive mutation induced at the same locus; 3 the formation of homozygous descendants, that is, identify by descent; and 4 heterozygous effects.
From partnership effects, about one extra case of recessive disease would be expected in the following 10 generations. Homozygosity resulting from identity by descent could not normally occur until the fourth generation after exposure but, on certain assumptions, about ten extra cases of recessive disease would be expected from this cause by the tenth generation. In the same period, about recessive alleles would be eliminated in heterozygotes given 2.
These deleterious heterozygous effects should not be combined with those of dominants, as has been done in some previous risk estimates. It is considered unlikely that many radiation induced recessives would show heterozygous advantage. Certain dominants should be excluded from calculations of mutational risk because they are unlikely to be maintained by mutation.
Mutations in the satellite cell gene MEGF10 cause a recessive congenital myopathy with minicores. We ascertained a nuclear family in which three of four siblings were affected with an unclassified autosomal recessive myopathy characterized by severe weakness, respiratory impairment, scoliosis, joint contractures, and an unusual combination of dystrophic and myopathic features on muscle biopsy.
Whole genome sequence from one affected subject was filtered using linkage data and variant databases. A single gene, MEGF10, contained nonsynonymous mutations that co-segregated with the phenotype. Affected subjects were compound heterozygous for missense mutations c. CR and c. Screening the MEGF10 open reading frame in patients with genetically unexplained myopathies revealed a heterozygous mutation , c. R71W , in one additional subject with a similar clinical and histological presentation as the discovery family.
All three mutations were absent from at least genotyped unaffected control subjects. MEGF10 contains 17 atypical epidermal growth factor-like domains, each of which contains eight cysteine residues that likely form disulfide bonds. Both the p. CR and p. CR mutations alter one of these residues, which are completely conserved in vertebrates.
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Previous work showed that murine Megf10 is required for preserving the undifferentiated, proliferative potential of satellite cells, myogenic precursors that regenerate skeletal muscle in response to injury or disease. Here, knockdown of megf10 in zebrafish by four different morpholinos resulted in abnormal phenotypes including unhatched eggs, curved tails, impaired motility, and disorganized muscle tissue, corroborating the pathogenicity of the human mutations. Our data establish the importance of MEGF10 in human skeletal muscle and suggest satellite cell dysfunction as a novel myopathic mechanism.
Cytoskeleton and nuclear lamina affection in recessive osteogenesis imperfecta: A functional proteomics perspective. Osteogenesis imperfecta OI is a collagen-related disorder associated to dominant, recessive or X-linked transmission, mainly caused by mutations in type I collagen genes or in genes involved in type I collagen metabolism.
Under-hydroxylation of this residue leads to collagen structural abnormalities and results in moderate to lethal OI phenotype, despite the exact molecular mechanisms are still not completely clear. Cytoskeleton and nucleoskeleton asset, protein fate, and metabolism were delineated as mainly affected. This is the first report describing an altered organization of intracellular structural proteins in recessive OI and pointing them as possible novel target for OI treatment.
OI is a prototype for skeletal dysplasias. It is a highly heterogeneous collagen-related disorder with dominant, recessive and X-linked transmission.
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There is no definitive cure for this disease, thus a better understanding of the molecular basis of its pathophysiology is expected to contribute in identifying potential targets to develop new treatments. Recently, the APP mutation AV has been identified that stands out from all the genetic defects previously reported in these three genes, since it causes the disease only in the homozygous state Di Fede et al.
We here provide the detailed neuropathological picture of the proband of this family, who was homozygous for the APP AV mutation and recently came to death. The brain has been studied by histological and immunohistochemical techniques, at the optical and ultrastructural levels. Therefore, the neuropathological picture of familial AD caused by the APP recessive mutation AV presents distinctive characteristics compared to sporadic AD or familial AD inherited as a dominant trait.
Autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa with RP1 mutations is associated with myopia.
Chassine, T. Full Text Available To identify the molecular basis of non-syndromic autosomal recessive congenital cataracts arCC in a consanguineous family. All family members participating in the study received a comprehensive ophthalmic examination to determine their ocular phenotype and contributed a blood sample, from which genomic DNA was extracted. Available medical records and interviews with the family were used to compile the medical history of the family. The symptomatic history of the individuals exhibiting cataracts was confirmed by slit-lamp biomicroscopy. A genome-wide linkage analysis was performed to localize the disease interval.
The candidate gene, LIM2 lens intrinsic membrane protein 2, was sequenced bi-directionally to identify the disease-causing mutation. The physical changes caused by the mutation were analyzed in silico through homology modeling, mutation and bioinformatic algorithms, and evolutionary conservation databases. The physiological importance of LIM2 to ocular development was assessed in vivo by real-time expression analysis of Lim2 in a mouse model. Ophthalmic examination confirmed the diagnosis of nuclear cataracts in the affected members of the family; the inheritance pattern and cataract development in early infancy indicated arCC.
Genome-wide linkage analysis localized the critical interval to chromosome 19q with a two-point logarithm of odds LOD score of 3. Bidirectional sequencing identified a novel missense mutation , c. G78D in LIM2. This mutation segregated with the disease phenotype and was absent in ethnically matched control chromosomes. In silico analysis predicted lower hydropathicity and hydrophobicity but higher polarity of the mutant LIM2-encoded protein MP19 compared to the wild-type. Moreover, these analyses predicted that the mutation would disrupt the secondary structure of a transmembrane domain of MP The expression of Lim2, which was detected in the mouse lens as early as embryonic day 15 E Mitochondrial myopathy, encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes MELAS is a condition that affects many parts of the body, particularly the brain and muscles.
Target sequencing of whole mtDNA and 73 nuclear genes identified compound heterozygous mutations p. RX and p. Each of his unaffected parents has one of the two mutations , and both mutations were not found in controls. The present case showed relatively mild symptoms with a late onset age, compared to a previous patient with FASTKD2 mutation , implicating an inter-allelic clinical heterogeneity. Published by Elsevier B. Structural consequences of this mutation are hypothesized in comparison to homologous enzyme human factor XIIIA accepted as valid in similar structural analysis and are projected as guidelines for future studies at an experimental level on TGM1 thus mutated.
Missense mutation in the USH2A gene: association with recessive retinitis pigmentosa without hearing loss. Microdeletions Glu 1-bp del , Thr 1-bp del , and Leu 2-bp del in the human USH2A gene have been reported to cause Usher syndrome type II, a disorder characterized by retinitis pigmentosa RP and mild-to-severe hearing loss. Each of these three frameshift mutations is predicted to lead to an unstable mRNA transcript that, if translated, would result in a truncated protein lacking the carboxy terminus.
Here, we report CysPhe, a novel missense mutation in this gene that changes an amino-acid residue within the fifth laminin-epidermal growth factor-like domain of the USH2A gene and that is associated with recessive RP without hearing loss. This single mutation was found in 4.
A single-nucleotide mutation in the gene that encodes DHDDS has been identified by whole exome sequencing as the cause of the non-syndromic recessive retinitis pigmentosa RP in a family of Ashkenazi Jewish origin in which three of the four siblings have early onset retinal degeneration. The peripheral retinal degeneration in the affected siblings was evident in the initial examination in and only one had detectable electroretinogram ERG that suggested cone-rod dysfunction.
The pigmentary retinal degeneration subsequently progressed rapidly. The identified mutation changes the highly conserved residue Lys42 to Glu, resulting in lower catalytic efficiency. Patterns of plasma transferrin isoelectric focusing gel were normal in all family members, indicating no significant abnormality in protein glycosylation. Dolichols have been shown to influence the fluidity and of the membrane and promote vesicle fusion.