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  1. General Literature E-H
  2. Figure Locations
  3. The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective

The reliance on a single pollinator species in H. However, A. Considering each pollinator, hymenopterans visited more flowers per plant than dipterans. This does not necessary imply an increase of fruit and seed set, as it could favour geitonogamy and thus increase selfing rates. Such risk is higher for H. Although the flower handling time was five- to six-fold longer for dipterans than for hymenopterans, dipterans are unlikely to be more effective pollinators in H. Unfortunately, data about pollinator efficiency pollen load was not collected and this hypothesis cannot be verified.

The differences between years in plant reproductive performance decreased fruit set in H. Sun exposure appeared to affects flower production, but not reproductive output in H. In contrast, the floral display of H. Rainfall patterns determine one of the main resources affecting seedling survival in arid and Mediterranean regions Fowler, ; Escudero et al. In the present study, higher seedling survival of both species coincides with one of the years with the highest rainfall Larger seedlings of both species showed a higher summer survival rate, as has been previously observed in the congeneric H.

In short, none of the factors controlling the reproduction of the two endangered species of Helianthemum are important for their reproductive performance. In other words, neither biotic or abiotic limitation affects the conservation of these two species. Instead, what seems crucial to explain their rarity is the increasing destruction of their habitat. Thus, the preservation of such habitats is the most critical aspects in any strategies for the conservation of these two species and, more generally, of the Mediterranean coastal flora and fauna. I am especially grateful to Anna Traveset for her supervision of the design and write up of this work.

Thanks are also due to three anonymous reviewers for comments on the final version of the manuscript. Europe PMC requires Javascript to function effectively. Recent Activity.

General Literature E-H

The snippet could not be located in the article text. This may be because the snippet appears in a figure legend, contains special characters or spans different sections of the article. Ann Bot. Published online Apr 8. PMID: Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. E-mail se.

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All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Keywords: Breeding system, conservation, Helianthemum , pollinator assemblage, reproductive output, seedling survival, threatened species, western Mediterranean. T able 1. Floral traits of H. Open in a separate window. Study sites The population of H. Flowering and fruiting phenology On 15 March , 45 plants of H. Breeding system The reproductive biology of both species was examined in under controlled conditions. Flower visitors Direct observations of pollinators of H.

Factors determining reproductive potential A total of 50 plants of each species of Helianthemum were tagged on 15 March , coinciding with those most used for phenology. Seedling survival In February , seedlings of H. Data analyses The pattern of flowering phenology of both species was tested using failure-time analysis.

Breeding system Fruit set in H. T able 2. Flower visitors Helianthemum marifolium received a lower diversity of flower visitors than H. T able 3. Order Family Species H.

Figure Locations

Factors determining reproductive potential Reproductive traits varied between sun exposure for H. T able 4. Source of variation H. Seedling survival Seedling survival varied significantly between years for both species Table 5 , being three- to six-fold higher in for both species Fig.

T able 5. Species Independent variables d.

Pollen Grain Formation-Sexual Reproduction In Plants-Video 2

Supplementary Material Content Select: Click here to view. Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle.

The evolution of bat pollination: a phylogenetic perspective

Proceedings of the second international symposium on information theory. Budapest, Hungary: Akademiai Kiado, — Palma de Mallorca: Consell Insular de Mallorca. Population size, pollinator limitation, and seed set in the self-incompatible herb Lythrum salicaria Ecology 77 : — Botanical Review 67 : — Biology and wildlife of the Mediterranean Region. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Genetic erosion, inbreeding and reduced fitness in fragmented populations of the endangered tetraploid pea Swainsona recta Biological Conservation 93 : — Competition and facilitation: a synthetic approach to interactions in plant communities.

Ecology 78 : — Conservation of Mediterranean island plants. Strategy for action. From pollination by Lepidoptera to selfing: the case of Dianthus glacialis Caryophyllaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution : 67— Factors controlling the establishment of Helianthemum squamatum , an endemic gypsophile of semi-arid Spain. Journal of Ecology 87 : — What is a safe site?

Neighbour, litter, germination date, and patch effects. Ecology 69 : — Wind pollination in high-mountain populations of Hormathophylla spinosa Cruciferae. American Journal of Botany 83 : — Origin and peculiarities of Mediterranean island floras. Ecologia Mediterranea 21 : 1— Dissecting factors responsible for individual variation in plant fecundity. Ecology 72 : — Flower-to-seedling consequences of different pollination regimes in an insect-pollinated shrub. Ecology 81 : 15— Plant animal interactions: an evolutionary approach. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Flower variation and breeding systems in the Cistaceae. Plant Systematics and Evolution : — Endangered mutualisms: the conservation of plant—pollinator interactions. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 29 : 83— S-Plus Guide to Statistics , Vol. Seattle: Mathsoft Inc. Conservation of flora in the Balearic Islands. Ecologia Mediterranea 21 : — Incompatibility in angiosperms.


Insects and other animal taxa have relatively similar basic nutritional requirements, including the spectrum of essential amino acids De Groot, It has been demonstrated that dietary protein content is crucial for reproduction, growth and longevity of bees and other insects Gilbert, ; Roulston and Cane, Thus, it can be assumed that bees do not vary significantly in their nutritional requirements concerning relative amino acid composition. We focused on qualitative as well as quantitative pollen amino acid composition and balance.

Our goal was to find out whether the pollen of plants selected by oligolectic bee species differs in its chemical composition compared to the pollen of plants not hosting oligoleges. We tested whether pollen sources of oligoleges contained either a significantly higher or lower 1 total amino acid content or 2 balanced composition of essential amino acids, and 3 deviation from an ideal composition of essential amino acids proposed by De Groot than plants not hosting oligoleges.